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Tourism Business : Chapter - 1, History of Tourism and the Travel Business In the World

This is the first post of Torism Business articles series... I thought that the history of tourism is the first thing to know and understand so that we could see the future of tourism clearly
2010-12-17 18:09
Tugberk Ugurlu


In the earliest times, people have travelled on foot to hunt, explore or make pilgrimages. Food, water, safety or acquisition of resources (trade) were the early travel motivations . The invention of the wheel and the sail provided new modes of transportation. Each improvement in technology increased individuals' opportunities to travel. When roads were developed and railway networks spread across the countries, tourism started to flourish.

In 1822, Robert Smart of Bristol, England, announced himself as the first steamship agent. He began booking passengers on steamers to various Bristol Channel ports and to Dublin.

mr-thomas-cook-profile.jpgIn 1841, Thomas Cook began running a special excursion train from Leicester to Loughborough in England which happened to be a trip of 12 miles. On the 5th of July in 1841, Cook’s train carried 570 passengers at a round-trip with a price of 1 shilling per passenger. This is believed to be the first publicly advertised excursion train. Thus, Thomas Cook can rightfully be recognized as the first rail excursion agent. His pioneering efforts were eventually copied widely in all parts of the World. Cook’s company grew rapidly, providing escorted tours to the Continent and to the United States and around the World.

But the first specialist in individual inclusive travel (the basic function of travel agencies) was probably Thomas Bennett (1814 - 1898) who was another Englishman serving as secretary to the British consul-general in Oslo, Norway. In this position, he frequently arranged individual scenic tours in Norway for visiting British notables. Finally, in 1850, he set up a business as a ‘trip organizer’ and provided individual tourists with itineraries, carriages, provisions and a travel kit. He routinely made advanced arrangements for horses and hotel rooms for his clients.

Incensement of Tourism Industry

After World War II, the availability of airplanes was the messenger of  the start of charter flights. In the 1970s, the introduction of wide-bodied jets meant that journeys to the USA and the Far East came with the reach of many people.

Tourism has also expended as people’s leisure time has increased. In the 1700s, leisure time was available only to the richer people. Indeed, they were sometimes referred to as the ‘Leisure Classes’. At the beginning of the 20th Century, bank holidays were introduced and in the 1930s, paid holiday time was more widely available. In the second half of the 20th Century, paid holidays were excepted as a norm and package holidays were within the reach of most people.

People become tourist for variety of reasons. Those reasons were limited at the earlier times but with the variety of services and thanks to good management thoughts of the professionals, those reasons increased a lot. Some of them are ;

  • VFR (Visiting Friends and Relatives)
  • Coastal Tourism
  • Congress Tourism
  • Thermal Tourism (AKA SPA & Health Tourism)
  • Belief / Faith Tourism
  • Culture Tourism
  • Mountaineering & Winter Tourism
  • Hunting
  • Adventure Tourism

That list could be expended. Also that list entirely point that out, there is big misunderstanding out there in the world about tourism industry : Tourism is only about leisure holidays.

Travel Companies

thomas-cook-office-pic.jpgNowadays travel agencies range from very small to very large businesses. The smaller businesses are very much like any other small business. Very few people carry out all the business operations, and jobs include secretarial, travel counseling and managerial activities. In large offices job opportunities are more varied and include commercial account specialist, domestic and international travel counselors, research directors and marketing managers. Of course, the main marketing area of a travel business is the internet in current times. Thus, large firms are having their own IT departments, even a Social Media Departments separately from others to handle all the communication between the company and clients. Tour operators are in need of those kind of departments separately more than travel agencies

[Some of the content of this article has been quoted from the Birgitta Wagner’s textbook of Travel & Tourism]

TourismGeek.Com, Tourism Professionals Gathering Point...

Currently I am working on an ASP.Net MVC project which will be a blog spot for tourism professionals. If all goes as planned, it will be online at the beginning of new year !
2010-11-14 13:35
Tugberk Ugurlu


Update on the 28th of April, 2011

I had to postpone the project for a while. So there is no such an existing thing yet.

For over a month, I have been working on an ASP.Net MVC 2.0 Project which will be a blog spot for tourism professionals. If all goes as planned, it will be online at the beginning of new year ! 

The website will a multilingual website and it will offers greate amonth of academical tourism resources. TourismGeek.Com will not be blog website of a person, it will be the collection of artciles from tourism profecionals, experts and undergraduate students.


The Brief Information About TourismGeek.Com and Introduction


TourismGeek.Com is not a web site. It would be so insulting to call it 'web site' ! Then, what is this ? Here some of the explanatory words that I've come up with but not sure if they fit;

  • Tourism article database
  • Tourism community gathering place
  • The thing that tugberk has created to satisfy his egos ! (Most likely to me !)
  • Best friend of a toruism student, an intern and even an expert...
After a couple of days, you will figure out on your own what this web site is. So there is no need you to understand it now !

The articles you will see on this website will be all about tourism or a major which is somehow related to tourism (economics, business administration, computer science, etc.) and written by toursim professionals (experts, lecturers, undergraduate students, etc.).

One of the main aim of this web site [not that there are so many aims of it :)] is to make the information easily reachable. How so? Let's see;

  • The articles of the professionals will be under tourismgeek.com/{here is the article number} ! For instance, tourismgeek.com/100 ! That easy ! Not complex, crazy, mind exploding urls !
  • Professionals writting on this website has a single profile. Wanna see their profile? Easy ! Browse this : tourismgeek.com/{here is the user name of the professional} ! For instance, tourismgeek.com/tugberk ! That easy ! Not complex, crazy, mind exploding urls !
  • Looking for something specific? Easy ! Write it on the search box on the top-right side and search !

We will rumble with tourismgeek.com soon !

UNWTO Tourism Highlights 2010 Edition Has Been Released / Download For Free As PDF, 2010

Finally, UNWTO has released UNWTO Tourism Highlights 2010 Edition. For tourism expertx and students it is a great source of facts and figures...
2010-09-23 08:08
Tugberk Ugurlu


tourism-heighlights-2010-edition-pdf-donwload-freeUNWTO has been always a perfect source for all tourism students, experts and academic leaders of tourism management. I have been studying on tourism for 9 years and UNWTO (earlier known as (AKA) WTO) has been my first door to knock when I need the facts and figures concerning tourism industry.

So unwto has released Tourism Highlights 2010 and it is greater than the others. They have changed the reporting design and that is a good call I guess. It is now more clear to digest the report. But I wish that it should have cover more pages. 12 pages is not enough to abstract the whole year.

Here is the UNWTO explanation of Tourism Highlights 2010;


UNWTO Tourism Highlights presents a concise overview of international tourism in the world based on the results for the year 2009.

The booklet offers statistics and analysis on international tourist arrivals, international tourism receipts, a summary of results by region, major regional destinations by arrivals and receipts, outbound tourism, generating regions as well as the ranking of top tourism destinations by arrivals and receipts, and the top spenders list.

tourism/unwto-tourism-highlights-2010-report
UNWTO has changed the reporting style and the new one is so much better...

Also some new tourism students might need to know what UNWTO is and how it serves. So here is so brief information about UNWTO

The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), a United Nations specialized agency, is the leading international organization with the decisive and central role in promoting the development of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism. It serves as a global forum for tourism policy issues and a practical source of tourism know-how. Its membership includes 154 countries, 7 territories, 2 permanent observers and over 400 Affiliate Members.

Quoted From UNWTO

The first impression on the report is that due to the financial crisis, international tourist arrivals declined by 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million. I qutoted the below abstract of Europe resurlts in 2009 from the report;

Out of all the regions in the world, Europe’s tourism sector, the world’s largest and most mature, has been the hardest hit by the recession. The region, which accounted for 52% of international tourist arrivals and 48% of international tourism receipts in 2009, saw arrivals decrease by 6% to 460 million, while receipts declined 7% in real terms to US$ 413 bn (euro 296 billion).

Destinations in Central and Eastern Europe were particularly badly hit, while results in Western, Southern and Mediterranean Europe were relatively better. Many countries in Central and Eastern Europe have been more severely affected by the economic recession and are finding the return to growth more difficult. Overall, arrivals in the subregion are estimated to have fallen by 10%.

Nevertheless, a few European destinations still succeeded in posting positive results: Hungary ( 3%), Sweden ( 3%), Turkey ( 2%) and Italy ( 1%). Various other European destinations with easy access over land from nearby markets, such as Croatia (-1%), the Netherlands (-2%), Germany (-3%), Austria (-3%) and Switzerland (-4%), also did better than the region’s average. Among the more affected in 2009 were destinations within the euro area and with a marked reliance on the UK source market such as Cyprus (-11%) and Spain (-9%), which suffered the impact of a historically weak UK pound. France, the world’s first destination by arrivals, and Greece (both -6%) just matched the trend for the region.

Quoted From UNWTO

leisure-tourism-main-purposes-of-tourism-activitiesinbound-tourism-by-mode-of-transport

UNWTO Tourism Highlights 2010 can be downloaded as PDF. There are two versions of the pdf file as it appears every year. One is Low resolution (759Kb) and the other is High resolution (3Mb). Here are the direct links;

Enjoy the figures Smile

List of Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World in English. Brief descriptions of Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
2010-05-22 11:48
Tugberk Ugurlu


Seven Wonders of the World

  • Great Pyramids of Egypt (including Sphinx)
  • Hanging Gardens of Babylon
  • Tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus
  • Statue of Zeus at Olympia
  • Collosus of Rhodes in the Harbor at Rhodes
  • Great Lighthouse in Alexandria, Egypt
  • Temple Artemis at Ephesus

Tourism In Turkey / Tourism History of Turkey, Milestones of Tourism Industry In Turkey

In terms of its geographical location, Turkey has been being centre of travelers for ages. In this post, I tried to lay out the tourism history of turkey...
2010-05-22 08:31
Tugberk Ugurlu


'Tourism Management Project Assignment / International Tourism Management Collage, ITM Collage, Semmering - Austria, 2008'


Turkey should be separated into 2 parts asbefore and after the Republic of Turkey. During the period of Ottoman Empire, Orient Express can be practically regarded as an activity which enabled tourismto be born in Turkey. Railway was the most useful way to travel and it was theonly tourism infrastructure at those times.

In 1923, Republic of Turkey was founded andtourism began to change as the society of Turkey transformed into new, modernsociety. Some guilds related to tourism began to be established. Another bigstep was the foundation of Turkish Airlines in 1925. Tourism evidently developed until the World War II. During the World War II, tourism in Turkey was affected as happened in the other countries.

After the World War II, tourism industry began to be concerned governmentally. A new legislation in order to stimulate entrepreneurs to invest on tourism by giving credit with very low interest was come into force. There is no doubt that it would affect the whole tourism industry within following years.

Foundation of TÜRSAB (Association of Turkish Travel Agencies) enabled tourism industry to get organized easier. Nevertheless industry did not have a legislation which rules the sector. Because of that the Law of  Travel Agencies and The  Association of Travel Agencies was put into action in 1972.

Also, airports were being constructed andterminals upgraded to handle ever-growing passenger traffic. Several maritimeports were either under construction or being planned to relieve congestionaround Turkey's industrial and commercial centers within those periods. As the superstructure side, numbers of accommodation establishments was increasing andnew travel agencies was opening.

Turkey is destination of mostly leisure travelers, business travelers and sightseeing travelers. Coastal tourism is much more developed than the other tourism fields. Turkey has been a centre of sightseeing travelers through wealth of its historical sites.


THE FACTS AND FIGURES

2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
International Tourist Arrivals (1000)
10,652
12,782
13,341
16,826
20,273
18,916
22,248
International Tourism Receipts (Million US$ )
8,597
9,010
13,203
15,888
18,152
16,853
-


1995

2000

2003

2004

2005

2006

Tourism Expenditure (Billion - US $)

0,9

1,7

2,1

2,5

2,9

2,7

 


2005

2006

2007

Hotel Performance in Istanbul (Occupancy %)

74,6

71,2

73,8

*These figureswere taken from UNWTO Barometers published 3 times within a year.


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